The UK Wild Otter Trust is dedicated to promoting a positive understanding of the Otter & Otter conservation in all areas, raise the awareness through education, involvement & … Sea Otter Conservation Workshop XI Seattle Aquarium March 29-31, 2019 By Gena Bentall The biennial Sea Otter Conservation Workshop, hosted by the Seattle Aquarium, has become the hottest scene for biologists, zookeepers and aquarists, advocates, and government specialists working with or interested in sea otters. [13] Growth has slowed slightly, suggesting that the numbers are reaching carrying capacity. Join the Seattle Aquarium for the largest meeting of sea otter biologists in the world at our Sea Otter Conservation Workshop. [34] Disease is believed to be a leading cause, and other possible mortality factors include water contamination and drowning in fishing nets. [9][10] The sea otter population within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary is estimated to be more than 1,200. During the 20th century, sea otter populations recovered from remnant populations in the far east of Russia, western Alaska, and California. What was historically a vast population now numbers just over 3000 as of 2006 census. The most significant threat to sea otters is oil spills. “It would change the game in terms of how we look at sea otter conservation… 2. Otter - Otter - Conservation and classification: Nearly all species of otters face increasing threat as urbanization and logging continue. [11] The at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is over 500. The IUCN describes the significant threats to sea otters as oil pollution, predation by orcas, poaching, and conflicts with fisheries. The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. [30], 59 sea otters were translocated from Amchitka Island to Washington in 1969 and 1970, with annual surveys between 2000 and 2004 recording between 504 and 743 individuals. Written by the pre-eminent authority in the field, Otters: Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation builds on the reputation of the author's landmark monograph of the European otter, Wild Otters. VanBlaricom, p. 53. Then stocks of harbor seals and Steller sea lions experienced massive declines in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively, which may have forced orcas to seek smaller prey. While population numbers of the northern sea otter located in this region have still declined, the population hasn't been affected nearly as drastically as southern sea otters. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Description and ecological characteristics. However, due to their elusive nature, live-monitoring is extremely difficult. [28], In 1989, a separate colony was discovered in the central B.C. Current IUCN Conservation Status of Sea Otters|Conservation Evidence|NOAA UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: Sea Otters|Check the Seafood Watch List for this species Two hundred years ago, a million sea otters may have ranged along the 9,650km of Pacific coastline from northern Japan, through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, down the coast of California to Baja Mexico. coast. [32] Unusually high mortality rates amongst adult and young adult otters, particularly females, have been reported. The conservation status of this ancient species has been a concern in the UK since they became close to extinction here after dramatic population declines from the mid 1950’s to the 1980’s. By 1911, hunting for the animal's luxurious fur had reduced the sea otter population to fewer than 2000 individuals in the most remote and inaccessible parts of its range. Today, the return of this keystone species is a living reminder of what restoration, conservation and compassion for non-human species can achieve. "Sea Otters." Sea otter pups begin to learn to swim at around 4 weeks old. © 2021 SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Otters are a charismatic species that can be used to drive conservation initiatives and inspire people. Come with us on an unforgettable journey behind the scenes during a SeaWorld or Busch Gardens Camp. Since its inception in 1984, the program has saved many individual members of the threatened California sea otter … The assigned prioritization of each measure may change with time as new information emerges. It has only recently begun to reappear in Mexico and northern Japan. Scientists from the Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute (HSWRI), in cooperation with other facilities and volunteers, coordinated efforts to rescue and treat sea otters affected by the 1989 oil spill. After the years of the Great Hunt, the population in these areas, currently part of Russia, was only 750. The region's population of large whales was decimated by commercial whaling in the 1960s. The evidence in support of this explanation is circumstantial: It is unlikely that the otters have been dying from disease or starvation, as few bodies of sick or emaciated otters have been recovered. The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is the smallest marine mammal, and quite arguably the cutest, with its gentle expression and playful nature endearing it to many . It has a genetic lineage that is all its own and this information is both interesting and informative for phylogenetic research and assignment. Are you wild about whales? Gwaii Haanas lies about 100 kilometres off the northern British Columbia coast. Between 1741 and 1911, a period of extensive hunting for sea otter pelts, known as "the Great Hunt", brought the world population to 1,000 – 2,000 individuals in a fraction of the species' historic range. IUCN/The World Conservation Union lists the marine, giant, southern river, and sea otters are listed as "endangered" (species has a very high risk of extinction). Females are slightly smaller, weighing 14-33 kg and measuring 1-1.4 m in length. In advance of a major test in 1968, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission agreed to move hundreds of the animals to other parts of the coast. House Cats", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sea_otter_conservation&oldid=993381835, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 09:03. Gwaii Haanas lies about 100 kilometres off the northern British Columbia coast. After about eight months staying alongside their mothers, pups are weaned and on their own. [5] Sea otters are particularly vulnerable, as they rely on their fur to keep warm. [27] However, the First Nations people in the area had not been consulted before the relocations took place. Otters are highly charismatic and popular animals of very considerable concern to conservationists worldwide. The neotropical, southern, marine, giant, and California sea otters, as well as some subspecies of Eurasian otters and A.c. microdon, are listed on CITES Appen… [38] The parasite, which is often fatal to sea otters, is carried by wild and domestic cats. Otter - Otter - Conservation and classification: Nearly all species of otters face increasing threat as urbanization and logging continue. A sanctuary was created in Amchitka Island, whose sea otter population grew to outstrip its supply of prey. In this zone, only San Nicolas Island was designated as sea otter habitat, and sea otters found elsewhere in the area were supposed to be captured and relocated. Over 1,000 oiled sea otter carcasses were recovered,[21] with the actual number of deaths estimated to be several times that number. Specifically, sea otters control sea urchin populations, which would otherwise inflict extensive damage to the kelp forest ecosystems that provide crucial habitat and food for other marine organisms and help contain coastal erosion. [32] Its average growth rate between 1914 and 1984 was only 5%, and fluctuated or declined in the late 1990s. Otters Endangered Many of the different species of Otters have been heavily hunted in the past. [6][7][8] Prevention of oil spills, and preparation for rescue of otters in the event of one, are major areas of focus for conservation efforts. Males weigh 22-45 kg and are 1.2-1.5 m in length. The small, furry sea otter offers little nutrition for an orca, however orcas are so large that a handful of individual whales on a diet of sea otters would account for the disappearance of thousands of otters. [27] The sea otter is considered a threatened species in Canada and is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). In August 2005, the "southwest Alaska Distinct Population Segment" of the sea otter was listed as "threatened" under the Endangered Species Act. Beginning in the 1960s, efforts to translocate sea otters to previously populated areas were also successful in restoring sea otters to other parts of the west coast of North America. [3] The southern sea otter which range historically spanned from Baja, California all the way up to the shorelines of Oregon and We should care about the sea otter because it has intrinsic … From fun and affordable field trips for students to amazing summer adventures, our camps combine education and entertainment in a way that connects people to the sea and sea life like nowhere else. It prohibits commercial harvest of sea otters, and allows Alaska natives to hunt sea otters for subsistence and creation of handicrafts. Modern efforts in sea otter conservation began in the early 20th century, when the sea otter was nearly extinct due to large-scale commercial hunting. [16], California is the only location where the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) subspecies is found in significant numbers. A dead Sea Otter due to oil affecting its fur from the Exxon Valdez oil spill from NOAA. Unlike most marine mammals, the sea otter's primary form of insulation is an exceptionally thick coat of fur, the densest in the animal kingdom. [39] As the parasite can be carried into the ocean via the sewage system, cat owners are encouraged to dispose of droppings in the trash rather than flushing them.[40]. 41 years later and counting, their conservation status remains unchanged and their future uncertain. The population decreased from between 150,000 and 300,000 individuals in the early 1700s to only 2,000 individuals in 1911. Sea otters can drown if entangled in fishing gear. Current First Nations perspectives on sea otter conservation and management vary among people and through time as sea otter population status changes, as communities adapt to this perturbation, and as new legal frameworks supporting First Nations rights to co-management emerge. In the 1980s, the area was home to an estimated 55,000 to 100,000 sea otters, but the population fell to around 6,000 animals by 2000. In two important parts of its range, however, sea otter populations have recently declined or have plateaued at depressed levels. Otters are well suited to a life on the water as they have webbed feet, dense fur to keep them warm, and can close their ears and nose when underwater. SeaWorld parks rescue and rehabilitate orphaned, ill, and injured otters. Unfortunately, Those which had swallowed a lot of oil were treated with activated charcoal. [5] The liver, kidneys, and lungs of sea otters also become damaged after they inhale oil or ingest it when grooming.[5]. This species of sea otter is actually native to the Eurasia. Download free teacher guides to keep students learning in a hands-on way: includes vocabulary, classroom activities, goals and objectives. By the early 1900’s, every single sea otter had been hunted along the BC coast, not a single individual survived the brutality and greed of the fur trade. Since then, sea otter numbers have increased. (Photo: N. Guujaaw/ Gwaii Haanas) The return of the sea otter The Marine Mammal Protection Act protects sea otters. If you come across a sea otter you think is sick, injured or abandoned, please give it space and call The Marine Mammal Center’s stranding hotline at (415) 289-7325. So far as otters are concerned organisations such as the Environment Agency, particularly its branch that was previously known as the National Rivers Authority and the Vincent Wildlife Trust Otter … [36], The causes of the recent difficulties for California's sea otters are not well understood. CITES is an international treaty, developed in 1973, to regulate trade in certain wildlife species. [15] Seven hundred sea otters were transplanted in the 1960s and 1970s, with survival rates improving as scientists became more knowledgeable about how to safely transport the animals. Adult sea otters typically weigh between 14 and 45 kg (31 and 99 lb), making them the heaviest members of the weasel family, but among the smallest marine mammals. The sea otter's range is currently discontinuous. This has been made possible by legal protection — in 1977 sea otters became protected under the Endangered Species Act — and by the work of nongovernmental organizations to support … It has a genetic lineage that is all its own and this information is both interesting and informative for phylogenetic research and assignment. Estimates vary from 2,000 to 6,000 sea otters. Their conservation legacy is truly remarkable. The otter was nursing twin pups at the time of the incident. Natural oils in a sea otter's fur repel water and trap tiny air bubbles, providing a layer of warm air between the otter's skin and the harsh elements of its environment. Because of the species' reputation for depleting shellfish resources, advocates for commercial, recreational, and subsistence shellfish harvesting have often opposed allowing the sea otter's range to increase, and there have even been instances of fishermen and others illegally killing them.[2]. Sea otter numbers have declined in southwestern Alaska over the past 20 years. The sea otter was once abundant in a wide arc across the North Pacific ocean, from northern Japan to Alaska to Mexico. Other threats to sea otters are well-known. Scientists removed the oil from the otters' fur with dishwashing detergent. The biggest concentrations of sea otters can be found in the waters surrounding Alaska. K uu (sea otters) in a kelp forest in Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, National Marine Conservation Area Reserve and Haida Heritage Site. The otter Lutra lutra is a semi-aquatic mammal, which occurs in a wide range of ecological conditions, including inland freshwater and coastal areas (particularly in Scotland). For the last 40 years, southern sea otters have been listed as “threatened” under the federal Endangered Species Act with the population estimated at just a few thousand. [23] Each otter was tranquilized and thoroughly washed and dried. [13] The success of the sea otter's recovery in Russia has been credited to large-scale and long-term protection, enlargement of the species's range, and human emigration from the islands. Sea otter conservation. Sea Otter Conservation brings together the vast knowledge of well-respected leaders in the field, offering insight into the more than 100 years of conservation and research that have resulted in recovery from near extinction. A sea otter relies on its fur to keep warm because it doesn't have an insulating layer of blubber as other marine mammals do. Populations in coastal areas utilise shallow, inshore marine areas for feeding but also require fresh water for bathing and terrestrial areas for resting and breeding holts. In 1938, a couple testing a telescope discovered a group of about 50 of these animals in a remote part of the coast near Big Sur, California. Sea otters first became protected from the fur trade by the International Fur Seal Treaty in 1911, after the population had decreased to about 2,000 as a result of unrestrained hunting for furs. Another endangered sea otter species is known as the european otter, also known as eurasian river otter, common otter, and old world otter. The sea otter was once abundant in a wide arc across the North Pacific ocean, from northern Japan to Alaska to Mexico. According to one theory known as "sequential megafauna collapse", orcas may have started eating otters due to shortages of their usual, much larger, prey. ... Their conservation in Singapore is an international success and a national pride. [13] As of 2004, sea otters have repopulated all of their former habitat in these areas, with an estimated total population of about 27,000. North American river otters (L. canadensis) are still taken as part of the commercial fur trade, but the primary threats to others are the destruction of wetland habitats and pollution. This treaty between U.S., Russia, Japan, and Great Britain was established to ban large-scale commercial hunting of sea otters and fur seals and to allow their populations to recover. [13], Colonies were discovered around Alaska's Aleutian Islands and Prince William Sound in the 1930s. The unique opportunity to observe and learn directly from live animals increases public awareness and appreciation of wildlife. [16] In 1973, the sea otter population in Alaska was estimated at between 100,000 and 125,000 animals. About 360 sea otters were rescued and treated at nearby rehabilitation facilities. Sea Otter Conservation brings together the vast knowledge of well-respected leaders in the field, offering insight into the more than 100 years of conservation and research that have resulted in recovery from near extinction. Animal experts bottlefeed the pups, then wean them on a diet of fish before they are released. Enhydra lutris, also known by its common name of Sea Otters, are Living at the top of the aquatic food chain, the otter is a key indicator of the health of aquatic systems. However, conservation of the sea otter is complicated by the fact that some of its preferred prey species, such as some species of abalone, crabs, and clams, are also eaten by humans. Of these, 195 were successfully rehabilitated and released. The fact that sea otters uphold the health and balance in kelp forests has generated support for conservation efforts, but the reintroduction of the invertebrate predators has also caused some friction with fishermen and coastal communities dependent on the species sea otters eat. Sea otters, Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758), are the largest member of the Family Mustelidae (70 species of river otters, skunks, weasels, badgers, etc.) Sea Otter Conservation brings together the vast knowledge of well-respected leaders in the field, offering insight into the more than 100 years of conservation and … [35], In December 2014, the U.S. Go behind-the-scenes to see how our trainers care for and interact with these amazing animals, and get up close with some finned, flippered, or feathered friends. Once containing more than half of the world’s sea otters, this population segment, which ranges from Kodiak Island through the western Aleutian Islands, has undergone an overall population decline of at least 55–67 percent since the mid-1980s. 1. [23] Although few sea otters were saved in the rescue effort, much knowledge was gained about how to successfully rehabilitate oiled sea otters. population and may lead to a reduction of its legal status under SARA. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is administered by the U.S. Sea Otters are also known as “indicators,” this title means that the species' health and condition can help to show how healthy the ecosystems are doing (Shimek, Cauldwell 1998). Taken with tigers? Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, "Final Washington State Sea Otter Recovery Plan", "National Marine Sanctuary Frequently Asked Questions", Ecoscenario: Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, City of Monterey | Harbor | Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary History, Population dynamics and present status of sea otters (, "Aleutian Sea Otter population falls 70% in eight years", "Lacking a decent meal, killer whales reach for the popcorn", "Sea Otters – Southwest Alaska Sea Otter Recovery Team (SWAKSORT)", "Lawsuit Seeks to Sheild (sic) Alaska Sea Otter", "British Columbia: Sea Otter Research Expedition", "Aquatic Species at Risk - Species Profile - Sea Otter", "California otters rebound, but remain at risk", "Sea otter shooting in Moss Landing investigated by feds", National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, "What's Killing California's Sea Otters? Sea Otter Conservation brings together the vast knowledge of well-respected leaders in the field, offering insight into the more than 100 years of conservation and research that have resulted in recovery from near extinction. The International Otter Survival Fund (IOSF) is one of the world's leading otter charities. The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal living near the shores of the North Pacific, from northern Japan, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka east across the Aleutian Islands and along the North American coast to Mexico. All other otter species and subspecies are listed on Appendix II, in which the species is identified as threatened. Find a variety of free classroom activities that will keep your students engaged and excited to learn about animals. These animals are apex predators, critical for the maintenance of a productive, healthy and diverse nearshore marine ecosystem; for this reason and others, it’s important to understand all the factors that may affect the health of sea otter populations. The MMPA, with certain limited exemptions, makes it illegal to hunt, harm, or harass any marine mammal in U.S. waters. Hear animal sounds for animals like anteaters, dolphins, frogs and more. [12], Before the 19th century there were around 20,000 to 25,000 sea otters in the Kuril Islands, with more on Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. [18] Also, populations have declined in areas of open water frequented by orcas, but not in nearby lagoons where orcas are absent. The sea otter preys mostly upon invertebrates such as sea urchins, diverse mollusks and crustaceans, and some species of fish. IUCN/The World Conservation Union is a worldwide conservation organization. For the last 40 years, southern sea otters have been listed as “threatened” under the federal Endangered Species Act with the population estimated at just a few thousand. [32], In one study, 42 percent of live sea otters surveyed had antibodies to the T. gondii parasite, an almost certain sign of infection. For ingested oil, scientists administered a treatment of activated charcoal, given orally, to bind to the hydrocarbons in the crude oil and allow them to pass through the intestine. More and more, however, the issues associated with sea otter conservation have merged into broader environmental concerns, such as ecosystem-wide changes in food sources and issues including climate change, ocean noise and coastal pollution. Now a protected species, California’s sea otters have grown from a group of 50 in 1938 to about 2,800 today. The Congo clawless, neotropical, and hairy-nosed otters are listed as "data deficient" (not enough data are available to determine the species' risk of extinction). The primary objective of the MMPA is to maintain the health and stability of the marine ecosystem and to obtain and maintain an optimum sustainable population of marine mammals. The conservation and management of sea otters has benefited from a dedicated research effort over the past 60 years enabling this species to recover from a few thousand in the early 20th century to about 150,000 today. Otter Hunting The concept of Otter hunting is one that dates back to the 1700’s according to … The California population, thought to be extinct in 1920, has grown to its current figure of about 2,800 (USFWS 2004). We should care about the sea otter because it has intrinsic … They established a healthy population, estimated to be over 3,000 as of 2004, and their range is now from Tofino to Cape Scott. It seeks to stop the extinction of wild animals and plants in the United States, other nations, and at sea. Sea otters give live birth. Sea Otter pelts were highly prized because they are soft and thick; sea otters have the thickest fur of any animal. SeaWorld Orlando occasionally rescues orphaned North American river otter pups. In the Aleutian Islands, a massive and unexpected disappearance of sea otters has occurred in recent decades.[when?] Conservation programmes are far more effective when organised by local people but in Asia there are very few scientists working on otters and their habitats. The small geographic ranges of the sea otter populations in California, Washington, and British Columbia mean that a single major spill could be catastrophic for that state or province. It is not known if this colony, which had a size of about 300 animals in 2004, was founded by translocated otters or by survivors of the fur trade. In most of its range, it is a keystone species, with a stabilizing effect on its local ecosystem that is disproportionate to its size and abundance. [25] A little over a year later, the Arizona-based Center for Biological Diversity filed a lawsuit arguing that the U.S. Perspectives on sea otter conservation and management vary among First Nations, as they do among non-native people and even government agencies. Browse our extensive collection of zoological career infobooks including animal training, animal rescue and rehabilitation and zoo careers. November 15, 2001. and are the smallest marine mammal in North America. The IUCN lists the sea otter as an endangered species. [18] One controversial hypothesis is that orcas have been eating the otters. Beginning in the 1980s, the U.S. The tail comprises less than a third of the body length. Although it can walk on land, the sea otter is capable of living exclusively in the oce… This publication assesses the issues influencing prospects for continued conservation and recovery of the sea otter populations and provides insight into how to handle future global changes. In the UK IOSF is the only charity solely dedicated to the conservation, protection and care of otters based on years of scientific research in the UK and around the world. Managers, governments and conservation groups will need to work together to avoid disproportionate economic loses in small communities and for Indigenous peoples and to mitigate potential conflicts between humans and sea otters that can result in illegal sea otter killings. Using existing studies and modeling of sea otter growth, the researchers concluded that the San Francisco Bay could support about 6,600 sea otters, more than twice the current estimated population of 3,000. 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